Asia in Review Archive (2019-2020)

Sri Lanka

Date of AiR edition

News summary

18 February 2020

U.S. travel ban on Sri Lanka’s Army Chief

(tk) The U.S. government on Friday issued a travel ban on Sri Lanka’s army chief Lieutenant General Shavendra Silva over accusations of human rights violations including extrajudicial execution of unarmed rebels and systematic torture of people in government custody during the country’s civil war. [Al Jazeera]

After the war, Silva was promoted to major general and became Sri Lanka’s army commander last year amid international condemnation. According to the U.S. Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo, “the allegations of gross human rights violations against Shavendra Silver, documented by the United Nations and other organizations, are serious and credible.” Sri Lanka’s government, however, condemned the U.S. measure and said there were “no substantiated or proven allegations” against General Silva. On Sunday, it asked the U.S. to review its decision. [The Diplomat]

18 February 2020

Sri Lanka: Families of ‘disappeared’ threatened

(tk) According to Human Rights Watch, Sri Lankan security forces and intelligence agencies have intensified surveillance and threats against families of victims of enforced disappearance and activists supporting them since Gotabaya Rajapaksa became president in November 2019. Instead of fulfilling its commitments that the previous government had made with the UN Human Rights Council in order to promote “reconciliation, accountability and human rights”, it has repeatedly denied government involvement in serious human rights violations, including enforced disappearance in state custody between 2005 and 2015, when the current president was defense secretary and his brother, current Prime Minster Mahinda Rajapaksa, was president.

The previous government also started criminal investigations and legal proceedings concerning enforced disappearance. Under its relatively open environment, many relatives of the disappeared had chosen to speak out about their cases and started victim’s meetings. The current government, however, not only halted those criminal investigations and proceedings. [Human Rights Watch]

On Friday, February 14, hundreds of family members of enforced disappeared persons gathered in Colombo to commemorate their missing family members, and demand justice, truth and reparation. Amnesty International has demanded support for truth-seeking families by the government and immediate provision of information by the authorities, as well as independent criminal investigation in those disappearance cases. [Amnesty International]

11 February 2020

Sri Lanka: Police crackdown on demonstrators just days after freedom speech

(tk) Last week, armed police commandos were deployed against dismissed Dengue Eradication Campaign workers who were demonstrating outside the presidential secretariat. The demonstration was directed against the recent dismissal of 15,000 government employees from different sectors by the Rajapakse government, which claims that the previous administration “irregularly” hired them. 

After thousands of dismissed workers have demonstrated outside the presidential secretariat in the past weeks, Rajapakse’s office stated that the protests were an “inconvenience to the general public”. Thereupon, the Police forced protestors into an established “Agitation Site” where all demonstrations should be held surrounded by armed police commandos. The events happened only two days after President Rajapakse’s “freedom” posturing during his Independence Day speech. [World Socialist Web Site]

4 February 2020

Sri Lanka: A country at risk of conflict in ICG’s Watch List 2020

(tk) Sri Lanka has been identified as a country at risk of conflict or escalation of violence in the International Crisis Group’s early-warning Watch List 2020 among nine other countries worldwide. The report says that the new government has initiated fundamental changes to policies on ethnic relations, the legacy of a 26-year civil war, and the rule of law. It has the intention to abandon many key legislative achievements and policy commitments of the preceding government, including promises on post-war reconciliation, accountability and inclusive governance made to the UN Human Rights Council and to the EU. This policy shift partly rooted in the ethno-nationalism of Sri Lanka’s majorities, which threatens to increase ethnic and religious tension and dangerously weaken checks on executive and state power. [International Crisis Group]

28 January 2020

Sri Lanka: Government plans to walks back on UN obligations made after civil war

(tk/jk) After the 30-year civil war, the previous Sri Lankan administration made commitments at the U.N. Human Rights Council in October 2015 which included the obligations to set up an office for missing persons and to establish legal mechanisms to investigate alleged war. “The Rajapaksa government now wants the Office of Missing Persons to shutter operations” and plans a new law “to grant immunity to Sri Lankan soldiers who had allegedly committed war crimes during the conflict.” [Nikkei Asian Review]

In response to the Sri Lankan president’s statement of last week declaring that more than 23.500 missing Tamils were dead, [Asia in Review No. 3, January/2020] the EU as one of its major trading partners came out with a statement making clear it would use its economic relations to motivate Sri Lanka to remain committed to its human rights obligations.  [EEAS]

21 January 2020

Sri Lankan president says that thousands of missing Tamils are dead

(ls) In a widely reported statement, new Sri Lankan president Gotabaya Rajapaksa said that more than 23,500 people who were missing for a decade since the end of the country’s protracted Tamil war are dead. Rajapaksa himself was defense secretary at the time when many of these disappearances took place. In his statement, he claimed that of the thousands of disappeared most of them had been conscripted by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) which was defeated in a major offensive that ended in May 2009. [Tamil Guardian]

A government-appointed commission established in August 2013 received 23,586 reports of people missing throughout the separatist war. International rights groups claim that at least 40,000 ethnic Tamil civilians were killed in the final stages, but the government has disputed the figures. Under current law, families cannot access property deeds, bank accounts or inheritances left by missing relatives unless they can conclusively prove they are dead, which is often an impossible task. [Straits Times]


21 January 2020

Sri Lanka: Concerns about serious jeopardy of human rights

(tk) After Gotabaya Rajapaksa’s election as president in November 2019, human rights organizations see fundamental human rights in Sri Lanka in serious jeopardy. Human Rights Watch states: “There is every reason to fear that any progress Sri Lanka has made in recent years in restoring basic rights and rebuilding democratic institutions will be overturned with a vengeance. The new president seems intent not only to wipe away the Rajapaksa’s past abuses but clear the path for future ones.” [Human Rights Watch

Also Amnesty International is concerned by multiple reports of harassment, intimidation and attacks on human rights organizations, media outlets and journalists by officials and law enforcement agencies in the last years. According to Amnesty International, such incidents create fear in organizations and individuals defending and promoting human rights and can have a negative impact on their work. However, Sri Lanka has the obligation to protect Human Rights Defenders under several international human rights treaties to which it is a state party. [MENAFN]


21 January 2020

India and Sri Lanka to intensify security cooperation

(ls) India and Sri Lanka are in negotiations to enhance their existing security cooperation. India’s National Security Advisor Ajit Doval met with recently elected Sri Lanka President Gotabaya Rajapaksa and discussed setting up a maritime research coordination center as well as intensifying military and coastguard cooperation. Sri Lanka has traditionally been allied to India, but China invested and loaned large amounts to the island nation during the decade-long (2005-2015) reign of Gotabaya’s elder brother, Mahinda. Sri Lanka’s foreign policy was tilted significantly towards China under Mahinda. In December, Gotabaya said that Sri Lanka would need more financial assistance from China if other countries, particular India and EU countries, do not invest. [Al Jazeera]

Meanwhile, Indian concerns over Chinese ties with Myanmar are growing. Through the construction of the Kyaukpyu port, China will be making its presence felt on India’s eastern flank. India is already wary of China’s presence at Gwadar in Pakistan (in the west) and Hambantota in Sri Lanka (in the south). Though India and Myanmar have conducted several joint military operations along their borders, with China moving in with economic and other incentives, there could be pressures on the India-Myanmar relationship, according to observers. Chinese President Xi Jinping just visited Myanmar over the weekend. [Livemint]

An often-overlooked organization in this region is the Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (Bimstec). Its member states are Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Nepal and Bhutan. These countries have been negotiating on and off since 2004 for a free trade agreement (FTA) but differences between India and Thailand over market access remain a major problem. However, in 2017 India made a commitment to hold more regular and high-level meetings. While China is physically disconnected from the Bay of Bengal, Chinese investment has poured into Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, where Beijing has made its presence felt. A piece in the Bangkok Post discusses Bimstec’s challenges and chances. [Bangkok Post]


7 January 2020

Sri Lanka: Human Rights concerns under new Rajapaksa leadership  

(lf/jk) Human Rights Watch has called out Sri Lanka for withdrawing a proposed replacement law supposed to replace the Prevention of Terrorism Act (PTA). The PTA was put in place in 1978 as a counter-terrorism law during the civil war against the Tamil Tigers. 

The move goes against pledges made towards the UN human rights commission and the EU and is not the only step taken by newly elected President Gotabaya Rajapaksa threatening human rights protection in Sri Lanka. President Rajapaksa also placed several civil security instances such as the police under the Defence Ministry and is seen to increase the influence of the military.  [Human Rights Watch].


31 December 2019

China-constructed Port City Colombo off Sri Lanka’s coast – strategic competitors are looking closely 

(jk) A Chinese-built island off Colombo, which is intended to become a kind of special economic zone, has been completed and officially handed over to Sri Lanka earlier this month. [Dredging Today] Critical observers see the strategic location of the island as the main reason for the Chinese investment and are particularly worried about the economic zone requiring “a new legal regime and regulations that some observers are likening to the ‘one country, two systems’ formula China uses with Hong Kong”, which would also require a change to the country’s constitution. The US and its allies fear a dual-use or even a purely military facility to be eventually set up there by China. [Nikkei Asian Review


24 December 2019

Sri Lanka: Rajapaksa retracts from Hambantota port renegotiation remarks

(jk) Against expectations that the newly elected Sri Lankan president Gotabaya Rajapaksa and his brother, Prime Minister Mahinda Rajapaksa, will establish closer relations with China, the new government announced early in December that it wants to renegotiate the previous regime’s 99-year lease of the strategically located port of Hambantota to China. [Asia in Review, No. 49, December/2019, 1]

Now, things seem to revert to the more expected path with President Rajapaksa stating that his government will not renegotiate the existing agreement and the Chinese embassy immediately after releasing a statement saying that it appreciates the President’s clarification. [WION]

17 December 2019

Sri Lanka arrests Swiss embassy employee

(lf/ls) Diplomatic relationships between Switzerland and Sri Lanka have tensed after Sri Lankan officials have arrested an employee of the Swiss embassy for allegedly making false claims. The employee and the Swiss embassy had previously accused Sri Lankan police of kidnapping the employee and forcing her to disclose information about asylum seekers to Switzerland. This comes after a high ranking police officer, who investigated former president and now Prime Minister Mahinda Rajapaksa and who had left for Switzerland in fear of his safety. [AlJazeera] [BBC]

The Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (FDFA) said that in this high-profile case Sri Lanka’s reputation as a country that upholds the rule of law is at stake. It criticized the 30-hour interrogation to which the employee was subjected over three days despite being in poor health, and the public statements by senior Sri Lankan officials questioning her account before the investigations had been completed. [Colombo Gazette]

10 December 2019

Sri Lanka suspends Parliament ahead of early elections

(jk) President Rajapaksa, after announcing a snap election to be held in March next year which he hopes will give him a majority in parliament, [Asia in Review, No. 48, November/2019, 4] has now suspended parliament and said the new session will commence in early January. Reportedly, “the official announcement of calling a fresh session of the legislature will give the minority government of Mr Rajapaksa more control over parliamentary oversight committees.” [The Straits Times]

10 December 2019

Sri Lanka: Military officer appointed as new intelligence chief

(jk) Sri Lanka’s State Intelligence Service (SIS), which has been heavily criticized after failing to prevent the Easter Bombings this year has a new chief. For the first time, a military officer – Brigadier Suresh Sallay, the former director of the Military Intelligence – has been appointed.

The previous SIS leader was dismissed after he was asked to take responsibility for failing to pass on information that could have prevented the Easter Bombings that killed over 250 people. He refused to step down and appealed to the Supreme Court over his “unfair dismissal”. [India Today]

3 December 2019

New Sri Lankan government wants Hambantota port back from China, commits to India

(ls) Despite expectations that the newly elected Sri Lankan president Gotabaya Rajapaksa and his brother, newly appointed Prime Minister Mahinda Rajapaksa, will establish closer relations with China, the new government announced that it wants to undo the previous regime’s 99-year lease of the southern port of Hambantota to a Chinese venture in return for $1.1 billion. That arrangement was made after it had turned out that it would be difficult to pay back the loans taken from China to build the project. Now, an economic adviser to the new government, citing national interests, said that it would be best if “we pay back the loan in due course in the way that we had originally agreed.” Whether China concurs with this remains to be seen. [Business Standard]

Meanwhile, on the first foreign visit by Gotabaya Rajapaksa to New Delhi, India extended two additional lines of credit worth $450 million for infrastructure and counter-terrorism. After a meeting with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Gotabaya stated, “whilst with India the cooperation is multifaceted with priority given to security-related matters, with other counties the initiatives for cooperation are by and large, economic and commercial.” He also said that he would not allow any third force to come in between cooperation with India. Modi replied that “Sri Lanka is not only India’s closest neighbor but most trusted friend.” [The Wire] [Eurasia Review]

India and Sri Lanka traditionally have close cultural and historical links. Still, New Delhi had watched with concern the growing ties between Colombo and Beijing, particularly when Mahinda Rajapaksa was in power between 2005 and 2015. Observers consider that China will remain important for Sri Lanka in terms of aid and economic cooperation, whereas ties with India will continue to be marked by unavoidable ups and downs. [Straits Times]

26 November 2019

Sri Lanka: Rajapaksa family widening its influence

(jk) After Gotabaya Rajapaksa’s presidential election win just over a week ago in Sri Lanka [Asia in Review No. 47, November/2019, 3], he has wasted no time to announce two major decisions.

First, he appointed his brother and former President Mahinda Rajapaksa as Prime Minster following the resignation of former PM Ranil Wickremesinghe. Mahinda will now serve at the head of the new cabinet in addition to his portfolio as Finance Minister. To top it off, he is only one of two Rajapaksa family members in the cabinet with another brother of the two Rajapaksas holding further two portfolios – agriculture and irrigation, as well as trade.

Secondly, President Rajapaksa announced a snap election to be held in March 2020 which he hopes will give him a majority in parliament if he can build on the momentum and success of the recent presidential polls. [Straits Times 1, Straits Times 2]

Additionally, as stated in the constitution, no court proceeding can take place against a ruling President. As a consequence, a court dropped corruption charges against Gotabaya last week for which he was indicted at the end of last year. [Wion]


19 November 2019

Sri Lanka: Rajapaksa wins presidential election

(ls) In Sri Lanka’s presidential election on Saturday, Gotabaya Rajapaksa, brother of former president Mahinda Rajapaksa, won 52.3 per cent of the votes, while ruling alliance candidate Sajith Premadasa had 42 per cent at the final count. Gotabaya, who ran for the nationalist Sri Lanka Podujana Peramuna party, secured his victory mainly by capturing votes in Sinhala-Buddhist southern provinces, while Premadasa had large majorities in the Tamil-dominated north. [South China Morning Post]

The Rajapaksas thus return to power on the strategically located South Asian island after an interlude of nearly five years. Gotabaya was a key figure during the nearly 10-year presidency of Mahinda, whose two terms were marked by his authoritarian grip. Observers consider that a Gotabaya presidency is likely to become a Rajapaksa family affair and will bring Mahinda, who could not contest the 2019 election due to Sri Lanka’s presidential term limits, back into the limelight. [Nikkei Asian Review]

It is expected that the Sri Lankan government will again tilt towards China, given the Rajapaksa’s past preferences as well as Gotabaya’s strained relationship with the United States, which has often raised his role as defence secretary during the war against the LTTE in 2009 amidst allegations of human rights violations. Sri Lanka’s debt situation will also likely mean a greater role for China, which is the island’s biggest investor and creditor. [The Hindu]

Some analysts predict Gotabaya’s election may escalate ethnic tensions, while others hope he can deliver on his promises on security as Sri Lanka still recovers from the Easter Sunday bombings by Islamic State militants earlier this year, which killed more than 250 people. [Daily FT]

Displaying the ethnic tensions, gunmen fired on buses carrying Muslim voters who were travelling to a neighboring district where they were registered to vote in the north-west of the country. The incident came as police and troops were locked in a standoff in the Tamil-dominated northern peninsula of Jaffna where residents complained about military roadblocks ahead of voting. [Straits Times]


12 November 2019

Sri Lanka likely to have new PM after presidential elections

(jk) With presidential elections fast approaching, it now looks very likely that the country will also have a new PM after the elections coming Saturday. Both leading candidates for the presidency, the opposition candidate Gotabhaya Rajapakse and PM Wickremesinghe’s own party’s candidate Sajith Premadasa have now publicly stated that they would appoint a new PM in case they win the election. Wickremesinghe is the leader of the United National Party, Sajith Premadasa’s party, but his leadership is heavily contested. [Asia Times]


5 November 2019

Sri Lanka: Analyses before the upcoming presidential election

(ls) In the lead-up to Sri Lanka’s presidential election on 16 November, Marwaan Macan-Markar analyzes Gotabaya Rajapaksa’s election strategy and his family’s persistent influence in Sri Lankan politics. He argues that the Rajapaksas are set to fight this election on the populist staples of security, ethnicity and religion, and that the vote could profoundly shape the direction of Sri Lanka’s politics, as the clan was working to establish a political dynasty, threatening to unwind more than four years of democratic progress. [Nikkei Asian Review]

From a constitutional law perspective, Asanga Welikala predicts that the winning political bloc will summon up all political muscle, possibly with little respect for the formal procedures set down in the Constitution. He argues that, while the Constitution now embodies an institutional model of executive power-sharing, the winner-takes-all political culture may not yet be ready to embrace the implications of that framework. [Sunday Observer]

Meanwhile, Sri Lanka’s governing party presidential candidate, Sajith Premadasa, who is the main opponent of Rajapaksa, has also pledged to refocus the country’s security policy and introduce tough laws to tackle religious extremism, illegal drugs and corruption. He also aims to introduce new legislation to provide severe penalties for hate speech and misinformation. [Al Jazeera]


29 October 2019

Sri Lanka: Dark future for Sri Lanka’s Democracy?

(jk) The presidential election next month may well return a member of the Rajapaksa family to the presidency. Some observers fear that should this happen, Sri Lanka’s democracy may not survive. It is feared that Gotabaya may repeat some of the patterns of his brother’s reign, which critical observers characterize by nepotism, human rights abuses, and a foreign policy oriented towards the People’s Republic of China not always strictly in the national interest. [Australian Strategic Policy Institute]

The orientation towards the PRC is something that the presidential candidate would “restore”, according to one of his advisors. [Reuters]


22 October 2019

Money-laundering and terrorism financing: Pakistan remains under investigation as Sri Lanka is white-listed

(ls) Pakistan remains on the grey list of countries that have not yet fully complied with recommendations made by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) vis-à-vis anti-money laundering and combating financing of terrorism (AML/CFT). The FATF is an intergovernmental organization that develop policies to combat money laundering and terrorism financing. It monitors through “peer reviews” of member countries. Placement on the grey list is a warning for a country that it may be put on a “blacklist” in case of its failure to take effective measures. Currently, only Iran and North Korea are in this lowest category. [Dawn] [Economic Times 1]

Sri Lanka, however, has been removed from the grey list. According to the FATF, the country made significant progress in addressing the strategic AML/CFT deficiencies identified earlier. It will therefore be relieved from the FATF’s close monitoring procedures. [Economic Times]

8 October 2019

Sri Lanka: Sirisena not running for re-election as Rajapaksa’s qualification is affirmed

(ls) Sri Lankan President Maithripala Sirisena has decided not to run in the country’s presidential election next month (16 November). He was not listed on the candidate list. Last year, Sirisena dismissed Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe and replaced him with ex-President Mahinda Rajapaksa, a former political rival. The Supreme Court, however, ruled against Sirisena’s action and reinstated Wickremesinghe. Sirisena also faced criticism over the government’s handling of an intelligence report warning of the Easter Day bombings that killed 250 people. [Al Jazeera]

Meanwhile, the Sri Lankan Appeal Court dismissed a legal challenge to presidential candidate Gotabaya Rajapaksa’s qualification to run in the election. The court ruled that Rajapaksa holds Sri Lankan citizenship and no additional U.S. citizenship. Sri Lanka does not allow dual citizens or non-citizens to contest national elections. Rajapaksa is widely seen as the election frontrunner because of his popularity among majority Sinhala Buddhists for his role in ending a 26-year civil war in 2009. [Reuters]

1 October 2019

Sri Lanka: Presidential polls to be held on November 16

(jk) The Election Commission has announced that the presidential polls will be held on Sunday 16 November with nominations expected by October 7. Currently, possible candidates include the incumbent President Maithripala Sirisena (who has however not said he would run again) and Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe, as well as Housing Minister Sajith Premadasa, also from the ruling United National Front.

As reported previously [Asia in Review No. 33, August/2019, 2], the main opposition candidate is likely to be Gotabaya Rajapaksa, the brother of former president Mahinda Rajapaksa, who himself is not qualified to run for President but may have an eye on becoming PM. [Washington Post]

Before the route to nomination for Gotabaya Rajapaksa is free however, he faces a court test over his nationality by a three-judge panel that was set up earlier this week. Activists who petitioned the court to look into the matter claim that he did not properly obtain dual Sri Lankan citizenship in 2005, when he was a United States citizen after he renounced his native citizenship of Sri Lanka a few years earlier. Since the “double-citizenship” process was flawed, as was his regaining of Sri Lankan citizenship, his citizenship is null and void which would make him not eligible for the presidency. [Reuters] The Court of Appeal has decided to hear the petition later this week.

24 September 2019

Sri Lanka: New investigation into Easter bombings

(ls) After allegations that current probes are not independent, a fresh inquiry into the Easter suicide bombings that hit Sri Lanka and killed at least 258 people was ordered by President Maithripala Sirisena. While the newly launched inquiry is being carried out by a cross-section of Members of Parliament, many opposition members are boycotting it. They say the commission is being used by political parties to deflect any responsibility for failing to stop the attacks. In the aftermath of the attacks, the government blamed a local militant group, the National Thowheeth Jama’ath (NTJ) while the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria militant group also claimed responsibility. [Straits Times]

24 September 2019

Sri Lanka: Presidential candidate Rajapaksa vows to forge closer ties with China

(ls) Sri Lankan presidential nominee Gotabaya Rajapaksa would restore relations with China, the country’s top lender, if he wins the November 16 election. Opposition politician Rajapaksa, who is the brother of former president Mahinda Rajapaksa, is widely seen as the frontrunner in November’s election due to his popularity among Sri Lanka’s Sinhala Buddhist majority for his role in ending a 26-year civil war in 2009. Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe’s ruling United National Party (UNP) will name its candidate this week. Ties between Colombo and Beijing soured when current president Sirisena, upon his election in 2015, suspended all Chinese investment projects, citing allegations of corruption, overpricing and violation of government procedures. [Reuters] [Xinhua]

17 September 2019

Sri Lanka’s Hambantota Port links up with Ranong Port in Thailand

(jk) The Hambantota International Port of Sri Lanka has signed an agreement for port-to-port cooperation with the Ranong Port in Thailand, in order to build synergies under the framework of the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC). [MenaFN]

17 September 2019

Sri Lanka: Constitutional Court does not drop corruption charges against Gotabaya Rajapaksa 

(jk) Sri Lanka’s constitutional court rejected an appeal last week by Gotabaya Rajapaksa to dismiss corruption charges against him. Rajapaksa, brother of the former President, is by many seen as the most likely frontrunner in the upcoming presidential elections.  Should he be found guilty of the charges however it is possible that he might not be allowed to run. [Colombo Page]

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16 July 2019

China-gifted frigate arrives in Sri Lanka

(jk) China has gifted a frigate to the Sri Lanka Navy (SLN) which will be in charge of diverse operations of the SLN, such as offshore patrol, environment monitoring or anti-piracy combat. It is considered to be the SLN’s most advanced ship. In addition to the vessel, the PLA Navy has conducted training for over 100 Sri Lankan naval officers in China. [SLGuardian]

16 July 2019

Sri Lanka: Political and religious aftershocks of the Easter attacks

(ls/jk) The Sri Lankan government defeated a no-confidence motion brought by an opposition party over what it called “criminal negligence” in failing to prevent Easter Day bomb attacks on hotels and churches that killed more than 250 people. The defeat of the motion is likely to strengthen Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe, who has been at odds with President Maithripala Sirisena since Sri Lanka’s constitutional crisis last year. Their political differences widened following the attacks. [Reuters]

The head of the Buddhist nationalist group Bodu Bala Sena (BBS) has invited his followers and members of the group to meet and discuss matters such as who they will be backing in presidential elections scheduled for December this year. [Straits Times]

During the rally, he said his group should “aim to take democratic control of parliament to protect the community” and create a Sinhala government themselves. Buddhist hardliners led by BBS have fuelled increasing hostility against Muslims in Sri Lanka, especially since the Easter Bombings, saying they are influenced by the most conservative and radical Muslims of the Middle East. [Adaderana]

9 July 2019

Following Easter bombing, Sri Lanka wants to curb Saudi Arabian influence

(ls) After the Easter Sunday terror attacks in Sri Lanka, the government announced that the Department of Muslim Religious and Cultural Affairs will start to monitor previously unchecked money flows to Sri Lankan mosques from donors including prominent Saudi families. Since the attacks, a Wahhabi scholar was arrested, and the government may take over a Saudi-funded school.

However, until now, ongoing investigations have not shown that any Saudi money flowed to the plotters of the attacks. Long before the Easter attacks, minority Sri Lankan Muslim felt under unjustified suspicion and critics attribute the recent government moves against Saudi influence to some degree to a rising Islamophobia. [Reuters] 

9 July 2019

Sri Lanka: Supreme Court suspends executions

(ls) After Sri Lanka’s president Sirisena has signed four death sentences last month effectively ending a 43-year moratorium, the executions have been suspended by the Supreme Court granting interim relief. Sirisena claims the new policy is in part inspired by the Philippines’ bloody drug war. [Reuters]

Prime Minister Wickremesinghe stated, however, that a majority of MPs were against resuming executions. The president defended his decision in a telephone conversation with UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres by claiming the need to “save the country from drugs”. He also accused the European Union critical of the policy change of interfering in internal affairs. [Straits Times]

In recent years, thousands of committees were formed in schools and villages to create awareness about drugs. These committees were vocal in demanding the government to hang hardcore drug dealers. But Sirisena is also likely to eye his reelection: Prior to the Easter Day terror attacks, his approval ratings were strong. He was expected to get votes from both liberal and conservative sections of the country. The attacks marred this image. [DW]

2 July 2019

Sri Lanka’s special board of inquiry finds ‘major lapses’ led to a failure to stop Easter bombings

(jk) A special board of inquiry, set up by President Sirisena, has recommended to launch an investigation into the former Defence Secretary over “major lapses” in failing to prevent the Easter bombings that killed over 250 people. Sirisena himself was heavily criticised for failing to act on intelligence warning against the bombing prior to its occurrence, but he claims to have not been alerted to such warnings. He vowed to take action against officials who failed to share it and set up the special board of inquiry as a consequence. [Al Jazeera]

2 July 2019

Sri Lankan President signs death warrants for four drug convicts to end moratorium on death penalty

(jk) Sri Lanka, after just six months ago voting in favour of a global moratorium on the use of the death penalty at the UN General Assembly, still intends to abandon long-standing moratorium on the death penalty. President Sirisena in February announced the country would carry out the executions, saying he had been inspired by President Rodrigo Duterte, but the country has not gone ahead yet, partly due to difficulties in filling the required job vacancy of a hangman, which has yet to be completed [SCMP]. The story has come to the fore again with international human rights organisations and foreign governments concerned that recent preparations indicate executions will be resumed soon. [Channel News Asia, UK Foreign Office, New Europe] In addition to external pressures, there are a number of administrative hurdles to pass internally, such as deliberating petitions that have been filed against the move to resume executions. [SCMP II]

11 June 2019

“Neighborhood First”: Indian PM Modi visits Maldives and Sri Lanka

(ls) Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi made his first overseas trip since being elected to a second term by travelling to the Maldives and Sri Lanka, reflecting the importance India attaches to its ‘Neighborhood First” policy.

In the Maldives, Modi and Maldives’ President Ibrahim Mohamed Solih signed six Memoranda of Understanding (MoU) in the fields of hydrography, health, passenger and cargo services by sea, customs capacity building, training of civil servants and the sharing of white shipping information between the Indian Navy and the Maldives National Defence Force. In March, the countries had signed a USD 800 million Line of Credit Agreement for assisting the Maldives to achieve sustainable social and economic development. [Business Today]

Modi also inaugurated a coastal radar system and military training center in the Maldives. The two leaders pledged to combat piracy, terrorism, organized crime and trafficking through “coordinated patrolling and aerial surveillance, exchange of information, and capacity building.” [Al Arabiya]

Solih reaffirmed his government’s “India first policy” and pledged full support toward deepening “the multifaceted, mutually beneficial partnership between India and the Maldives”. Solih’s stand was a marked shift from his predecessor Yameen Abdul Gayoom, who developed close ties with Beijing. [South China Morning Post]

In Sri Lanka, Modi started his short visit by paying respect at one of the sites of the Easter Sunday attack. He said that he was confident Sri Lanka will rise again and cowardly acts of terror cannot defeat their spirit. [India Today] During his Maldives visit, Modi had already called for a global conference to tackle the threat of terrorism in the region and around the world. “The international community has actively arranged for global convention and many

conferences on the threat of climate change. Why not on the issue of terrorism?” he said. [Reuters]

11 June 2019

Sri Lanka to introduce anti-fake news legislation

(ls) Following a rise in online disinformation after the Easter suicide attacks, Sri Lanka’s government will introduce five-year jail terms for those caught spreading fake news and hate speech on social media. The cabinet of ministers approved a respective proposal. However, the text of the respective provision has not yet been released. following the attacks on three churches and three hotels on April 21, a nine-day ban on platforms including Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Instagram and WhatsApp had been introduced. Sri Lanka also shut down Internet access in March last year to prevent further violence during anti-Muslim riots. [Straits Times]

11 June 2019

Sri Lanka: Stand-off between parliament and president over bombing investigation

(ls) Sri Lanka’s president Maithripala Sirisena said he would not cooperate with a parliamentary investigation into security lapses before the Easter suicide bombings and would not allow defence or police officials to testify before a select committee. In response, the speaker of the parliament, Karu Jayasuriya, said that any public servant summoned by the committee was obliged to give evidence.  The committee began its publicly televised sittings since late last month. Evidence that has surfaced so far suggests that Sirisena failed to act on advance warning of the attacks. On Saturday, Sirisena’s office fired his national intelligence chief who testified that the attacks against three churches and three luxury hotels could have been avoided. [Bangkok Post]

4 June 2019

Sri Lanka: Muslim ministers resigned to protest the vulnerable state of Muslim minority against mob violence

(jk/jyk) The resignation of Sri Lanka’s Muslim government officials—nine ministers and two provincial governors—came amid the nation-wide persecution of Muslim community following the Easter suicide bombings. The bombing has given rise to anti-Muslim sentiment in Sinhala neighbours, where the mobs attacked and looted the Muslim community [Aljazeera 1], and the hard-line Buddhist monks demanded the Muslim provincial governors and minister to resign. One cabinet member who resigned said Muslims had cooperated with security forces to arrest suspects, but the community faced collective victimisation. The resigned Muslim leaders said they will remain in the back of the parliament for a month and accept police investigation to prove their non-involvement in any Muslim terrorist activities. [Aljazeera 2]

In the meantime, Sri Lanka’s suspended police chief has petitioned the Supreme Court, accusing President Sirisena of failing to prevent the attacks. Sirisena has suspended the police chief after he refused to take responsibility. He also says he met him and other top official less than two weeks before the attack and no one had raised the possibility of imminent attacks.[Straits Times]

28 May 2019

Sri Lanka: Nearly 100 alleged extremists detained

(jk) Amidst words by Sri Lankan President Sirisena to foreign diplomats that the current situation in Sri Lanka was “99%” secure”, the military deployed around 3.000 personnel for an operation that saw the detention of nearly 100 alleged extremists related to the Easter bombings earlier this year. On Wednesday, Sirisena has extended the state of emergency that was put in place after the bombings by a further 30 days. [All India Radio; Channel News Asia]

19 March 2019

Sri Lanka: Opposition leader Rajapaksa warns government not to “betray” Sri Lanka at the UN

(jk) Opposition leader Mahinda Rajapaksa stated that the UN Human Rights Commissioner’s latest report on Sri Lanka begs the question whether Sri Lanka remains a sovereign nation and he criticized the government’s intention to co-sponsor another resolution against Sri Lanka at the UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC). According to Rajapaksa, the government has announced that they will again co-sponsor a resolution re-affirming previous resolutions which “committed the government to among other things, setting up a hybrid war crimes court with the participation of foreign judges, prosecutors and investigators and to removing by administrative means, individuals in the armed forces suspected of human rights violations even if there is insufficient evidence to charge them in courts.” [Adaderana] He would like to see Sri Lanka stop co-sponsoring resolutions against itself as it did in 2015, as well as rejecting allegations made in previous UNHRC reports. Last week President Sirisena already questioned pledges his country had made to investigate war-time atrocities, saying he did not want to “re-open old wounds”. [AiR 2/3] The 40th session of the UNHRC is currently underway in Geneva and a report on Sri Lanka will be submitted later this week.

11 March 2019

Sri Lanka: No intention to investigate war crimes

(ls) Sri Lanka’s president Maithripala Sirisena put into doubt pledges his country had made to the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) to investigate war-time atrocities, saying he did not want to “re-open old wounds”. He said he will formally ask the United Nations rights body to reconsider a 2015 resolution which called for credible investigations into alleged atrocities. A previous deadline ended without any progress in bringing war criminals to justice. Although the UNHRC can pass resolutions, it has no mandate to implement resolutions or impose sanctions. [Channel News Asia]

Earlier this year, Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe presented to cabinet a memorandum to establish a Truth and Reconciliation Commission, similar to what was established in post-apartheid South Africa. There was, however, no mention of any probe into alleged war crimes. Sri Lankan government troops were accused of killing at least 40,000 ethnic Tamil civilians in the final months of the island’s 37-year guerrilla war that ended in May 2009. [Asia Times]

In a separate development, the United Kingdom Supreme Court, in a landmark decision, overturned a lower court’s finding that an asylum seeker from Sri Lanka organized his own torture to strengthen his claim to stay in Britain. It is expected to make it harder for authorities to say that accounts of torture are not credible where there is strong medical evidence to the contrary. [The Guardian]

4 March 2019

Sri Lanka: International Monetary Fund revives and extends Sri Lanka bailout

(jk) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has agreed to re-activate a three-year loan worth US$1.5bn, as well as extending it by one year to mid-2020. An installment of the fund had not been released back in October 2018 due to the political and constitutional crisis that unfolded then and the bail-out was put on hold. Sri Lanka faces tough financial challenges, owing several creditors at an economically difficult time. [Financial Times / Channel News Asia] Its move to give away a strategically important harbour to the People’s Republic of China (PRC) on a 99-year lease made headlines last year and became a poster-child for the PRC’s “debt-trap diplomacy”.

4 December 2019

Sri Lanka’s constitutional crisis is further intensifying

(jk) As AiR readers know, Sri Lanka remains stuck in a political and constitutional crisis with no breakthrough in sight after the Sri Lankan President appointed former president Mahinda Rajapaksa to replace the sitting prime minister Ranil Wickremasinghe.

Now, after losing but refusing to accept not one but two no-confidence votes, the court of appeal has said it will not allow Rajapaksa to act as PM for this would cause “unpreparable damage” to the country. [Al Jazeera] 

A judge issued an interim order against Mr Rajapaksa and his cabinet, which will be in place until the final verdict is delivered. Rajapaksa has said he will appeal the decision in the Supreme Court.

The decision will likely also continue to impact the economic situation which has worsened since the crisis started and has seen the currency exchange rates dropping. The court order also stopped the presentation of an interim budget for the first few months of 2019 which may now impact the payment of salaries and pensions as well as foreign debt repayments. [ABC]. Whilst politics are staying still, the judiciary is working overtime as Sri Lanka’s highest-ranking military officer was finally put in custody last week after weeks evading arrest for allegedly protecting the chief suspect in the murder of 11 people during the civil war. [SCMP]

The embattled government has previously – in a desperate attempt to become more popular – slashed a tax on sugary drinks, reversing older anti-diabetes policies.[Channel News]

Currently, the government of Rajapaksa is only recognised by China and Burundi.